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网上古玩商城精品推荐19年第12期:元德重宝

元德重宝是中国古钱币大名誉品、中国古钱币五十名珍之一,为西夏崇宗皇帝李乾顺,元德年间(公元1119-1127)铸造。版式为折二型钱。钱文楷书,元德重宝直径一般为2.7厘米,中间方孔边长为0.5厘米。今存世不到十枚,珍罕无定价。崇宗皇帝朝另铸造有“元德通宝”钱。崇宗名乾顺,是惠宗之子,在位五十三年,先后共用天仪、治平、天佑、民安、永安、贞观、雍宁、元德、大德八个年号。

The treasure of Yuande is one of the most famous ancient coins in China and one of the fifty treasures of ancient coins in China. It was cast in the year of Yuande (1119-1127 A.D.) by Li qianshun, Emperor chongzong of Xixia. The format is two fold. Qianwen regular script, the diameter of Yuande chongbao is generally 2.7cm, and the side length of the square hole in the middle is 0.5cm. There are less than ten in the world today. They are rare and have no price. In the emperor chongzong's Dynasty, there was another coin of "Yuan de Tong Bao". Chongzong, the son of Huizong, was named qianshun. In his fifty-three years in office, he shared eight years, namely Tianyi, Zhiping, Tianyou, Min'an, Yong'an, Zhenguan, Yongning, Yuande and Dade.

 

【藏品名称】:元德重宝

[collection name]: Yuande chongbao

【类别】:钱币

Class: Coins

西夏是以党项族为主体建立的多民族政权,党项族原是甘南、川北地区羌系的一个分支,自迁徙甘肃、宁夏和陕西北部定居后,始改变游牧生活,从事农耕生产。据史料载:长期以来,党项族一直深受汉文化之影响,早在唐太宗贞观年间,党项族首领就受到册封,赐姓李,后成为唐之藩镇。

Nishi-Natsu Korei Party's group-based multi-ethnic political regime, Party Family Hara Koregannan, Kawakita District, Kawakita District, Jiayu Gan-, Yu-Natsu-Wa-Nishi-Northern Sadai-an, Kai-Kai-Maki Life, And Ko-Kosei. Imposition historical materials: Since the qing dynasty, the Party's Family's Family's Family's Family's Direct-Depth Cultural Nokage, Haya-in-Tang Tae-jong,The First Year of the Party's Head of the Family, Li, and Zhao Cheng-tang., the Party's Family.

北宋仁宗明道元年(1032年),宋廷封元昊为西平夏王,赐姓赵,建元显道。大庆三年(1038年)十月,在野利仁荣、杨守素等大臣的拥戴下,元昊称帝,是为景宗,国号大夏,改元天授礼法延祚,以兴庆府(今宁夏银川)为都城,史称西夏。其全盛时期疆域“东尽黄河,西界玉门、南接萧关、北控大漠,地方万余里,倚贺兰山为固”(清·吴广成《西夏书事》卷十二)。

The first year of the Hokutojin sect (1032), the Emperor of the Court of The Emperor Xiping Xixia, the surname of The Family, and the Kengen Singing Road. In October of the third year of Daegu (1038), Toshihito Arno, Minister of Foreign Affairs of The Moramori, Emperor Genjo, Emperor Koreshima, Kunino Daixia, Reformation Ofunju Law, Iefu (Ima natsuasahikawa) Shoto Castle, Fu (Imanatsu Asahikawa) The Zhenghuang River, the Western World Onion, nanjutsu, the Northern Pacific, the Regional Manmari, and the Zhaoshan Zhengyu," Qing Xicheng, 12.

 

在货币流通方面,由于西夏境内因缺乏铜矿资源,主要还是行用宋钱及少数辽钱。元昊称帝改元后,采纳谋臣张元“联辽制宋”建议,实行对宋用兵策略,意图得到最大利益。宋、夏经过持续几年的三川口(今陕西安塞东南)、好水川(今宁夏隆德西北)、定川砦(今宁夏固原西北)战役后,于天授礼法延祚七年(1044年)五月,双方达成罢战和议。宋每年“岁赐”共计银7.2万两,折铜钱25万余贯,绢15.3万匹,茶3万斤(《宋史·仁宗纪》)。并允许恢复因战争而停止的榷场贸易,以利于西夏军民的生活与生产,并同意使人在京城馆驿从事买卖事宜。

In terms of currency circulation, due to the lack of copper resources in Xixia, Song money and a small amount of Liao money were mainly used. After Yuan Hao proclaimed himself emperor and changed to Yuan Dynasty, he adopted the suggestion of adviser Zhang Yuan to "unite Liao to rule Song Dynasty" and implemented the strategy of fighting against Song Dynasty, with the intention of obtaining the greatest benefits. After several years of battles at Sanchuankou (now southeast of Ansai in Shaanxi), Haoshuichuan (now northwest of Longde in Ningxia) and Dingchuan Zhai (now northwest of Guyuan in Ningxia), the two sides reached an agreement on strike and negotiation in May of the 7th year (1044) when the ceremony was extended. Song gave 72,000 silver coins, 250,000 copper coins, 153,000 pieces of silk and 30,000 jin of tea each year (Song Shi Ren Zong Ji). He also allowed the resumption of the monopoly trade that had been stopped because of the war, which was beneficial to the life and production of the Xixia army and people, and agreed to allow people to engage in business in the hotel in the capital.

 

元德初年,宋、金订立盟约,联合灭辽。西夏当时为救辽费尽心机,然于事无补,后崇宗审时度势,附金称臣,金视其为藩国,把原属辽的西北地带及阴山以南大片土地割让给西夏。国力的增强,使崇宗踌躇满志,遂趁机攻占了宋境西北地区。辽、宋相继亡后,西夏又得到了陕西北部和湟水流域大片土地。是时,最能突出表现崇宗重视汉文化的就是在铸币方面。

In the early years of Yuan De, Song and Jin entered into a covenant to jointly destroy Liao. At that time, Xixia tried hard to save Liao, but it did not help. Later, Emperor Chongzong judged the situation and attached himself to Jin. Jin regarded it as a vassal state and ceded large areas of land in the northwest of Liao and south of Yinshan to Xixia. The increase of national strength made Chong Zong full of ambition and took the opportunity to capture the northwest region of Song Dynasty. After the death of Liao and song dynasties, Xixia acquired large areas of land in northern Shaanxi and Huangshui river basin. At that time, it was in the aspect of coinage that the most prominent manifestation of the worship of Buddhism and the emphasis on the Han culture was that.

 

从元德年间(1119~1126年)开始,一改过去只铸西夏文小平钱的状况,出现了用汉文铸造的“元德通宝”、“元德重宝”钱,虽然这两种钱的铸量极少,但开启了西夏后世铸行汉文钱的先例。可以说,元德钱是西夏自铸币以来第一次正式开铸的汉文货币,也是首次出现的二等币制,意义十分重大。

Starting from the year of Yuan De (1119~1126), instead of casting only small sums of money in Xixia, there were "Yuan De Tongbao" and "Yuan De Chongbao" coins in Chinese. Although the amounts of these two coins were very small, they set a precedent for the later generations of Xixia to cast Chinese coins. It can be said that Yuan De money is the first Chinese currency officially coined by Xixia since coinage, and it is also the first second-class currency system, which is of great significance.

 

西夏汉文元德钱的正式铸行,是当时社会历史背景的真实反映。主要因素在于崇宗亲政后改变了国策,使得西夏与宋朝罢战,百姓得以休养生息;加上宋朝又重新恢复“岁赐”和开放榷场,以致西夏社会经济有了快速发展。当时的御史大夫谋克宁曾提出“富国之方,无非食货。……既隆文治,尤修武备”(清·吴广成《西夏书事》卷三十二)的主张,崇宗听后虽称善不纳,但一贯坚持提倡汉学的崇宗,极有可能就此汲取了北宋币制的优越性,采用汉文铸造了元德年号钱。楷书“通宝”小平与“重宝”折二钱,昔被列为古泉名珍之一,收藏价值甚高!

The official founding of Yuan De money in Chinese in Xixia was a true reflection of the social and historical background at that time. The main factor lies in the change of national policy after worshipping the clan and pro-government, which led to the strike between Xixia and Song Dynasties and enabled the people to recuperate. In addition, the Song Dynasty resumed the "year-end grant" and opened up the market, resulting in rapid social and economic development in Xixia. At that time, the ancient censor Moukening once suggested that "a rich country is nothing but food and goods." ...... Both Longwenzhi, especially in military equipment "(Qing, Wu Guangcheng" Xixia Book "Volume 32) claims, Chong Zong said after listening to good is not satisfied, but has always insisted on advocating Sinology Chong Zong, it is very likely to draw on the northern song dynasty monetary superiority, the use of Chinese casting Yuan De Nianhao money. The regular script "Tongbao" Deng Xiaoping and "Chongbao" were converted into 2 yuan, which was once listed as one of the famous treasures in Gu Quan and has a very high collection value.

 

此品“元德重宝”,品相可谓上乘。其钱体及边缘穿郭处点缀红斑,字口间杂以少许绿锈,尤以包浆甚好,色润而古,煞是可人。其钱文直读,书体楷意笃实,结构疏密有致,神韵气度不凡。由于其形制规范,铸工精湛,钱文深刻,穿口利落,殆有初铸试样之可能,当为西夏珍品钱之翘楚。

This product "Yuan De Treasure" has excellent appearance. The body and border of the coin are dotted with red spots, with a little green rust mixed between the word mouths, especially the wrapping pulp is very good, the color is moist and ancient, which is really lovely. Its Qian Wen is direct reading, its book style is sincere, its structure is well organized, and its verve is distinguished. Because of its standardized shape, exquisite casting, profound Qian Wen and neat piercing, it is almost possible to cast samples at the beginning, and it is the leader of Xixia treasures.

 

 

 

 

 

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